Art of Turkish Tiles
Posted by Kuleva on June 9, 2009
Turkish interior and exterior architectural ornamentation of the tiles are hand-colored art, real big and has shown continuous growth in the Anatolian Turkish architecture. Various techniques zenginleşen of these decorative arts, has always been connected to architecture, it’s not crushing superiority, but the effect of space has increased by creating a colorful atmosphere. Turkish architecture in the use of decorative tile to date in a very old program. Uygur and Karahanlı the Ghaznavids, Harezmşahların and especially of Great Seljuk architecture in Iran even if less than the tiles used are known. This art, with the very common and various types of Anatolian Seljuk architecture development work on the show has continued in existence until today. Each period of decorative tile, the earlier period, to maintain the technical superiority of the new technical inventions and this art has enriched the color.
Anatolian Seljuk architecture of religious buildings are decorated with mosaic tile technique. In this technique turquoise, purple, green, dark blue color in the desired pattern of secrecy by the tile is cut to pieces was a plaster on the floor. Seljuk mansion and the palace, stars, haçvari, hexagonal, square, rectangular, geometric tiles, such as is covered with sheets. Selçuklu also a metallic luster glazes are applied on the “polishing” technique developed. In addition to religious structures and geometric composition, rumi and abstract floral motifs such as twisted branches Palmet also were given. Also, very effective and large kufi also has an important place sülüs article with decorations. Various positions in the decorative tiles in Anatolia, the palace people, hunting animals, birds, double-headed eagle, dragon, mythical creature, which also has sphinxlike a rich collection figures to unfold. Konya was the center of the decorative tile in the Seljuk period. In the first example of brick and glazed bricks were used. But within a short period of time by cutting mosaic tiles over the whole surface coating to a level were there.
Anadolu’da including decorative tiles early on one of the important buildings, Sivas Keykavus Şifahane is in the tomb. Seljuk sultan I. The front of this tomb lies İzzeddin Keykavus’un, the Sultan’s death states that the written sheets and tiles with decorative mosaic tiles are a magnificent. That the weight of the composition in geometric structure, the excavation was done by the technical experts of the two small cartridges that are Marendli.
13. century domed mosque dating from the old location with the Malatya Ulu eyvan and tile courtyard of revağındaki, architecture and glorious, depending on the success of this decoration is an example. Excavation techniques mentioned in the inscription on the tiles were made, created with the master of Malatya, the art has been applied with success in the Anadolulu artist reveals.
The most important center for Anatolian Seljuks of Konya in the architectural structure and decorative tiles from the city center, this is an art show in the elite. Alaeddin Mosque and the dome of the altar in the transition region are decorative tiles. Also Sırçalı Medresesi’s (1243) eyvan the mosaic tile decorations, inscription in the artist’s name is a Tuslu is important. Iran has come from the city of Tus from a family of artists that have shown activity in and around Konya in Anatolia, in other works of the similarities are understandable.
Konya Karatay Medrese (1251), has reached the top of the Seljuk period, the level of the mosaic tile art, especially in the dome, the building covers almost every section with decorative mosaic tiles will unfold. Composition is to look carefully, this construction of the serious and the mosaic tiles to be placed in a way that is conscious. Ata Mosque and the Mosque in Konya Nevertheless Owner (1258-1283) tile decorations, the Seljuk period in the development and widespread use of architecture to unfold. Niche of the mosque, the minaret of the body, in the sarcophagus of the tomb, arches, cellular networks, always Selçuklu window is covered with tiles in the art of outstanding examples. In this example, the wide area covered by floral motif is seen.
Gök Medrese in Sivas (1272) is 13th in the art of the Seljuk tiles there towards the end of the century shows the point. Eyvan into the vault, the mosaic tiles are applied to the relief of the put. Moreover, the decoration of the wall behind eyvan, previously seen only in Iran, the Seljuk structures instead of decorative bricks, mosaic tiles are used all Anadolu’da is interesting in terms of display. Gök Medrese in Tokat in front of eyvan the tiles, mosaic tiles are used in the Seljuk period provides a summary of the motifs. Medresesi of the town of Brook Stone (1278) entry in the red brick and turquoise tiles eyvan cutting, lotus-palmetli there is a frieze. The tiles of the altar, the first and last time in the Turkish tile art that offers a decorative manner. Turquoise and purple-colored tiles and Byzantine art are created with a node on the motive, the “Allah” and “Ali” written by the original arrangement with the eight-cornered star was created.
The magnificent altar Arslanhane mosque in Ankara, 13 and techniques to improve the richness of the century indicates that there is. Turquoise and dark blue colored mosaic tiles are used in niche, plaster ornamentation also has an important place. Seljuk period pavilion of the palace and, unfortunately, did not come as strong today. But as a result of excavations of this structure is understood to be covered with rich decorative tiles. Alaeddin Kiosk in Konya called, but I. Remains of the structure started to build Kılıç Arslan time, the Anatolian Seljuk art here is used only “Mina” is the technical name of the tile has been made. This tile is the color of the yellowish pulp, pulp inside the connector, the alkali is used with lime. Very good plastic dough, lamination and the coatings were secret is. Seven color used in the tile, high temperature based on the green, dark blue, purple and turquoise colors gold colored glazes were made by later designs. Then, black, brick red, white and gold gild the lighter colored glazes on top again in a heat furnace was again. Implementation is very difficult with this technique was of high quality products. This technique is done with stars, cross, diamond and square-shaped china plates, the Seljuk period, reflecting the palace life, next to the throne and hunting scenes can be seen in various animals and stylized plants.
Sultan I. Was built by Alaeddin Keykubad Kayseri Keykubadiye (1224-26) and Beyşehir Kubad Abad (1226-37) is in the palace square, eight-cornered star and haçvarı china plates, gold secrets and secrets on to the painting with metallic luster are the polishing technique. Besides the geometric motifs Keykubadiye Palace, turquoise with a black spiral gold making secrets that turned the frame of decorative tiles ramose is also used. Beyşehir many figures in the tile Kubad Abad Palace included. This structure is used in polishing techniques. In this technical pattern, matte white or purple and turquoise glazed tiles on top of a silver or copper oxide mixture is processed, the oven temperature was a low tile. Thus, the oxidation of a mixture of minerals in a thin layer was covered with a decorative tile surface. The eight-cornered star placed between tiles Haçvari shaped sheets, contains a wide variety of human and animal figures. These examples, Selçuklu a depiction of the mundane and the symbolic meaning of understanding has zenginleşen.
Beylikler the use of tiles in the period, is not glorious as in the Seljuk. But in some instances, this art is still seen continued success. Especially in Beyşehir of Eşrefoğlu Beylikler Mosque (1299) and the adjacent mausoleum (1301), this period has the most magnificent tile decorations. Provide input to the mosque and carry the inscription on the inner door, with all tile mosaic tile art plates emphasize a team is like a victory. Mosaic tiles covering the dome of the tomb now has sovereignty grift floral motifs. Here in mosaic tiles of the pentagonal plate technique has been applied to create a feature that will unfold.
Decorative mosaic tile, Aydinoglu Beylikler Ulu’s Birgi Camii’ndeki (1313) carries the altar and the altar in front of the dome that also takes the belt. Of the same stereotypical Jesus Bey Mosque in Selçuk (1374), the niche axis, the transition to the first dome region, and star-shaped tiles are covered with bricks.
Decorative mosaic tile, Seljuk art with the audience the nearest is at Beylikler Karamanli. But this time, gypsum is used as decoration in inlay. Hasbey Darülhıffazı’nın in Konya (1421) to the altar and dome transition region of the mosaic tiles, will take on the Seljuk period features. However, İbrahim Bey İmaret in Karaman’s (1433) now exhibited in Istanbul Çinili Pavilion was built in colored glaze painting technique in niche splendent find the impact of Ottoman tile art. The same effects, in Kutahya imaret’ine adjacent to Germiyanoğlu Beylikler II. By Yakup Bey Tomb (1429) included in the set of the border, the rectangular plate with colored glazes china painting techniques are also coincide.
Since the beginning of Ottoman tile art with various techniques to implement and wealth has a large stage. Bursa Green Mosque (1419-22) and Külliye decorations of the tiles, the tiles of the first period, has reached the level of Ottoman art exhibitions. This structure is used in the “color secret” techniques of the contour of the pattern on the red clay were dug deep by or to be printed is processed with printing, then the oven is painted with colored glazes. Otherwise the dough with a red plate, the contour pattern of a white line after line, chrome, manganese mixture with a substance with sugar can be drawn. Then the oven is painted with colored glazes. Oven as a result of the melting of colored glazes, surging thanks to the contour is prevented from flowing into each other.
White, yellow, pistachio green, magenta, and a wealth of colors has to participate. Also, Hatay province, such as composition and peony patterns tile art has joined the Far East origin. This innovation in tile art join Ali bin Ilyas Ali is the greatest share. In fact, the masters of Bursa Semerkant’a borne by Timur 1402’de there by learning new techniques and style, in turn bring products have been carried out in Bursa with the craftsmen Tebrizli. Moreover, the Green Mosque in full ceramic coated Hunkar mahfil, Muhammed el Mecnun name is written in the tile, this section was taken as a signature of the craftsman’s pride is the same.
Green Tomb of the spurt of flowers in the niche between the two candelabra, and vases are hanging at the top of the candle composition, the decorative style is changing before your eyes to the Serer. Çelebi Sultan fully colored glazes Mehmed’in technique is the tomb covered with tiles, is one of the most glorious of çinili sarcophagi.
Mosque and Medrese Bursa’daki at Muradiye (1425) with a more limited decorations, mosaics and painting techniques with colored enamel in various formats consists of a single color glazed ceramic plates.